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Jovenes y agricultores ¿por qué no?

Joven y agricultor. ¿Por qué no?

18 enero 2017

Que la agricultura en España, y en el resto de Europa, es un sector envejecido es algo más que probado. Según los últimos informes del Consejo Europeo de Jóvenes Agricultores (CEJA), un 7% de total de agricultores de la Unión Europea tiene menos de 35 años , un 33 % más de 65 años y un 50 % ha cumplido ya 55. En España, la cifra todavía es menor: sólo un 5,3% del total de personas que trabajan en el campo son jóvenes.

Según Ricardo Bayo, presidente de UPA Joven (Unión de Pequeños Agricultores y Ganaderos), “en España hay un agricultor joven por cada veinte agricultores mayores de 55 años y eso que la agricultura en España tiene un enorme potencial; la diversidad del clima, terrenos y tipos de suelo hacen que nuestro país sea único”. ¿A qué se debe entonces este envejecimiento de la actividad agraria y cómo podemos ralentizarlo?

Entre los principales motivos se encuentra el precio por hectárea, que en 2014 se encontraba en 10.127 euros, una cifra difícil de alcanzar para aquellos jóvenes que no cuentan con lazos familiares en el sector. Ventura González, un joven de 25 años que lleva tiempo trabajando en la agricultura, comenta que “hoy en día lanzarse al sector agrario sin tener a nadie que te aconseje y con las dificultades burocráticas que hay a nivel administrativo, es casi imposible”.

Precisamente, el comisario europeo de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Phil Hogan, reconocía recientemente en una entrevista con El Economista que “el relevo generacional va a ser una de las prioridades de la Política Agraria Común” y que mediante los fondos FEADER (Fondo Europeo Agrario de Desarrollo Rural) se busca “apoyar la incorporación de más de 20.000 jóvenes agricultores en España hasta 2.020”.

Para Ventura González, algunas de las medidas a tener en cuenta para fomentar el relevo generacional que se presenta cada vez más urgente, son generar empleo y adoptar nuevas tecnologías que den una imagen más renovada del sector e incrementen la eficiencia de los sistemas agrícolas.

Este último punto cobra especial importancia ante el reto de la superpoblación: según la FAO, la producción agrícola deberá aumentar en un 60% para 2050 para poder alimentar a la población mundial. En este sentido, optimizar los recursos disponibles y digitalizar los procesos de producción se vuelven tareas imprescindibles para agilizar y acelerar el trabajo. La teledetección y los sistemas de posicionamiento por satélite (GPS), entre otras innovaciones, son ya una realidad en la que estamos trabajando en Bayer para dotar de mayor eficiencia al sector agrícola.

Para Ventura González, si bien “es un sector sacrificado, donde la rentabilidad de la explotación está a disposición de la climatología, de los fondos de inversión, de los mercados y de las producciones de otros países, pero compensa ver que, al final, todo el trabajo y el esfuerzo dan su fruto”.

Bayer

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